SEO friendly URLs with htaccess and PHP include script

Creating fancy SEO friendly URLs like is actually pretty easy and looks much better than In addition to looking more professionally, it might give you a small boost for your search engine visibility. This article is meant for PHP novices and will be pretty basic.

What you’ll need:

Before we begin, we will utilize PHP include() so we end up with 1 file as the template (index.php). All other sub pages will simply store the content and not the surrounding html/head/footer code.

So for the purpose of keeping things simple, I’ll paste all the code every step of the way so you can copy & paste it.

Step 1: Creating the template

Assuming your index.php looks like this:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">

<meta charset="utf-8">
<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">
<title>SEO Friendly URLs by IT-DB</title>
<link rel="icon" type="image/x-icon" href="res/favicon.ico">


<li><a href="index.php?page=home">Home</a></li>
<li><a href="index.php?page=portfolio">Portfolio</a></li>
<li><a href="index.php?page=about">About</a></li>
<li><a href="index.php?page=contact">Contact</a></li>

Welcome to our website!

Copyright © <?php echo date('Y'); ?>



We have to implement our PHP include function. Replace Welcome to our website! between the <main></main> tags with the following PHP script:

$page = !empty($_GET['page']) ? $_GET['page'] : '';
$page = substr(strtolower(preg_replace('([^a-zA-Z0-9-/])', '', $page)), 0, 20);
$def = "home"; // change to your default page
$dir = "inc"; // directory name containing all sub pages
$ext = "php"; // file extension if using anything else than php
if(!empty($page)) {
if(file_exists("$dir/$page.$ext") && is_readable("$dir/$page.$ext") && $page != "index") {
else {
header("HTTP/1.0 404 Not Found");
echo "Error 404 - File not found";
else {

It might look intimidating but it’s very simple. It checks if the URL contains ?page=x, and if so, it tries to show that page (file). It also does some input sanitizing as you can see in the second line (substr(strtolower(preg_replace('([^a-zA-Z0-9-/])', '', $page)), 0, 20);) to avoid hacking exploits. If the page (file) is not found, it will send error message 404.

Keep in mind that index should be saved as .php extension. If you save it as index.html the PHP code will simply not run.

Step 2: Setup URL rewrite using htaccess and mod_rewrite

Create a new file and save it as .htaccess. That’s right, no filename, only the extension. If using Notepad in Windows it might throw a fit because of a lacking filename. In that case, use another editor such as VSCode.

To keep things simple we’ll only use two lines to setup our URL rewrite. Copy and paste the following into your .htaccess file:

RewriteEngine On
RewriteRule ^([^/.]+)/?$ /index.php?page=$1

What this means is that any argument after / will be redirected to index.php?page=. Example: will redirect to (but your browser address bar will ofcourse only show

Step 3: Create the sub pages

Remember from last step, our PHP script defined “inc” as the name of our directory containing all sub pages. So, go ahead and create a directory called “inc” and then create a new file for every sub page by calling them subpage.php (i.e: Home -> home.php, About -> about.php).

Your file structure should look something like this

Keep in mind that these files should only contain the content related to that sub page. But they’re not limited to just text, you can use HTML and even PHP scripts inside them. Point is, you don’t have to declare the whole <html><head><meta> etc in every file, because that’s already saved in the template file and reused for every sub page.

Step 4: Change the URLs in index.php

While creating our template in the first step, we made a navigation menu like this:

<li><a href="index.php?page=home">Home</a></li>
<li><a href="index.php?page=portfolio">Portfolio</a></li>
<li><a href="index.php?page=about">About</a></li>
<li><a href="index.php?page=contact">Contact</a></li>

Although this will still work, we should change the URLs to use our new SEO friendly URLs. Change them to:

<li><a href="home">Home</a></li>
<li><a href="portfolio">Portfolio</a></li>
<li><a href="about">About</a></li>
<li><a href="contact">Contact</a></li>

That’s it, we’re done! Please let me know in the comments below if you encounter any issues or consult the troubleshooting tips.

Troubleshooting tips

Error “Object not found” or 404 error

Make sure you have mod_rewrite activated. If you recently installed mod_rewrite you may get away by just restarting the apache service. If not, check the guide I mentioned earlier:

I’m being redirected to the wrong page

This can happen if your project directory is in another subfolder. Please remove the / from the route in .htaccess:
RewriteRule ^([^/.]+)/?$ /index.php?page=$1
RewriteRule ^([^/.]+)/?$ index.php?page=$1

Thanks for reading!

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